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Some have argued that this may refer to the unrelated toponym Dunhong – the archaeologist Lin Meicun has also suggested that Dunhuan may be a Chinese name for the Tukhara, a people widely believed to be a Central Asian offshoot of the Yuezhi.By the third century BC, the area became dominated by the Xiongnu, but came under Chinese rule during the Han Dynasty after Emperor Wu defeated the Xiongnu in 121 BC. If you don’t find the book or article you’re searching for, send an email request with full details to the [email protected], and we will see if we can find it and post it on the site.Searching the Database: The search bar (above) on this website will search only the filenames for the term or phrase entered.After the fall of Han Dynasty it came under the rule of various nomadic tribes, such as the Xiongnu during Northern Liang and the Turkic Tuoba during Northern Wei.
Their documents in Chinese characters were written horizontally from left to right, the same way the Sogdian alphabet is read, instead of vertical line (or right to left if horizontal) that Chinese was normally written at the time.
By the second century AD Dunhuang had a population of more than 76,000 and was a key supply base for caravans that passed through the city: those setting out for the arduous trek across the desert loaded up with water and food supplies, and others arriving from the west gratefully looked upon the mirage-like sight of Dunhuang's walls, which signified safety and comfort. The first Buddhist caves in the Dunhuang area were hewn in 353." During the Sui (581-618) and Tang (618-907) dynasties, it was the main stop of communication between ancient China and the rest of the world and a major hub of commerce of the Silk Road.
Dunhuang was the intersection city of all three main silk routes(north, central, south) during this time.
Dunhuang was conquered in 1227 by the Mongols who sacked and destroyed the town, and the rebuilt town became part of the Mongol Empire in the wake of Kublai Khan' s conquest of China under the Yuan Dynasty.
Dunhuang went into a steep decline after the Chinese trade with the outside world became dominated by Southern sea-routes, and the Silk Road was officially abandoned during the Ming Dynasty. 1516, and also came under the influence of the Chagatai Khanate in the early sixteenth century.